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Back To Vidyya WHO Disease Outbreak Notification


Cholera In Somalia


The World Health Organization released a report on 02-May-2000 of a cholera epidemic sweeping through Somalia. From 01-January-2000, 2,232 cases of cholera and 230 deaths have been reported. Cases have been confirmed in Bay, Lower Juba, Lower Shabelle, Mogadishu and Mudug.

Cholera control in Somalia is difficult and complex--a result of problems with security, accessibility and drought. In areas where international teams are present, the fatality rate is lower due to case management strategies.

Most cholera infections are mild; patients may have no symptoms or only mild diarrhea. In a minority of cases, however, there is rapid onset of severe watery diarrhoea and vomiting, resulting in the loss of large amounts of fluid and electrolytes from the body. Patients become thirsty, stop urinating, and quickly become weak and dehydrated. Patients with severe cholera often complain of cramps in the stomach, arms, or legs.

All cases of cholera should be treated immediately. If treatment is delayed or inadequate, death from dehydration and circulatory collapse may follow very shortly.

There are more than 60 serogroups of Vibrio cholerae, but only serogroup O1 causes cholera. Vibrio cholerae O1 occurs as two biotypes - classical and El Tor. Each biotype also occurs as two serotypes - Ogawa and Inaba. The El Tor biotype has caused almost all of the recent cholera outbreaks, although cases caused by the classical biotype still occur on the Indian subcontinent. The El Tor biotype also causes a higher proportion of asymptomatic infections than the classical biotype and survives longer in the environment. It can live in association with certain aquatic plants and animals, making water an important reservoir for infection.

Cholera is acquired by the ingestion of an infectious dose of cholera vibrios. Faecally contaminated water is usually the vehicle for transmission of infection, either directly or through the contamination of food. Food may also be contaminated by the soiled hands of infected persons.

The Cholera Task Force collects and compiles data and provides supplies, training and support. Agencies that are a part of the task force include Unicef, Action internationale contre la faim, International Medical corps, Médecins sans frontières, the coordinating Committee of the Organization for Voluntary Services and the Somali Red Crescent Society.

World Cholera Cases 1999-2000

 

1999 Figures

Cumulative from  (1.1.99-31.12.99)

     

2000 Figures

(Cumulative from 1.1.00)

       
end of February) As at 31 March 2000 As at 31 March 2000 Date of first
  Cases   Deaths   Cases   Deaths   cases in 2000
Africa                 (month)
Angola              
Benin 855   25            
Burkina Faso 92   7            
Burundi 1794   50            
Cameroon 1584   26            
Cape Verde              
Central African Republic              
Chad 217   18            
Comoros 1180   42            
Congo 4813   20            
Cote d' Ivoire              
Dem. Rep. of Congo 12711   783            
Djibouti              
Ghana 9432   260            
Guinea 599   28            
Guinea Bissau              
Kenya 11039   350   192   3   January
Liberia 215              
Madagascar 9973   549   12328   692   January
Malawi 26508   648            
Mali 6   3            
Mauritania              
Mozambique 41483   1184            
Niger 1186   86            
Nigeria 26358   2085            
Rwanda 327   49            
Senegal              
Sierra Leone 863   5            
Somalia 7154   209   326   28   January
South Africa              
Sudan 0   0            
Swaziland 7   0            
Tanzania, U. R. of 12266   559   755   30   January
Togo 667   31            
Uganda 5169   241            
Zambia 13511   509   760   56   January
Zimbabwe 3928   283            
Total 193937   8050   14361   809    
America                  
Argentina              
Belize 12              
Bolivia              
Brazil 4495   83            
Canada              
Chile              
Colombia 27              
Costa Rica              
Ecuador 90              
El Salvador 134              
Guatemala 809     59   0   January
Honduras 33   3            
Mexico 9              
Nicaragua 452   7            
Peru 1114   6            
USA 1 i 0            
Venezuela 167   4            
Total 7343   103   59   0    
Asia                  
Afghanistan 14427 * 127            
Armenia              
Bhutan              
Brunei Darussalam 72   0            
Cambodia 1711   130            
China              
Hong Kong SAR 18 (11i) 0            
India 3835   6            
Iran, Islamic Rep. of              
Iraq 1985   30            
Japan 10 i 0            
Kazakhstan              
Lao People's Dem.Rep              
Mongolia              
Malaysia 101   0            
Nepal              
Philippines 41   0            
Republic of Korea              
Singapore 6   0            
Sri Lanka 108   5            
Viet Nam 166   0            
Total 22480 * 298 *          
Europe                  
Austria 1 i 0            
Belarus              
Denmark              
Finland              
France              
Germany 3 i 0            
Italy              
Netherlands 2 i 0            
Norway              
Portugal              
Republic of Moldova              
Romania              
Russian Federation 8 (5i) 0            
Spain              
Sweden              
Switzerland              
Ukraine 2   0            
United Kingdom              
Total 16   0            
Oceania                  
Australia 2 i 0            
Guam              
New Zealand 1 i 0            
Total 3   0            
Grand Total 223779   8451     14420 809    


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Editor: Susan K. Boyer, RN
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