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Ex Libris
Abbreviations (Medical)

  A/a  alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient

  ABCs  airway, breathing, circulation

  ABG  arterial blood gas

  AC  before meals (ante cibum)

  AC  acromioclavicular

  ACE  angiotensin-converting enzyme

  aCL  anticardiolipin (antibody)

  ACLS  Advanced Cardiac Life Support

  ACOG  American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology

  ACTH  adrenocorticotropic hormone

  AD  Alzheimer’s dementia or disease

  A Fib  atrial fibrillation

  AFB  acid-fast bacilli

  AFP  alpha-fetoprotein

  AFV  amniotic fluid volume

  AGCUS  atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance

  AI  amnioinfusion

  AIDS  acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

  ALT  alanine aminotransferase

  ANA  antinuclear antibody

  ANCA  antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody

  AP  anteroposterior

  APS  antiphospholipid syndrome

  APSAC  anistreplase, anisoylated plasminogen-streptokinase activator complex

  APTT  activated partial thromboplastin

  ARC  AIDS-related complex

  ARDS  adult respiratory distress syndrome

  ARF  acute renal failure

  ASA  acetylsalicylic acid

  ASAP  as soon as possible

  ASCUS  atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance

  ASO  antistreptolysin O antibody

  AST  aspartate aminotransferase

  Atg  anti-human thymocyte globulin

  ATN  acute tubular necrosis

  AV  arteriovenous; atrioventricular

  AZT  zidovudine (Azidothymidine)

  B12  vitamin B12

  BAER  brainstem auditory evoked responses

  BBT  basal body temperature

  BCG  bacille Calmette-Guérin

  BCP  birth control pill

  BHCG  beta human chorionic gonadotropin

  BID  twice a day (bis in die)

  BiPAP  bilevel positive airway pressure

  BOOP  bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia

  BP  blood pressure

  BPAD  bipolar affective disorder

  bpm  beats per minute

  BPP  biophysical profile

  BPPV  benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

  BSA  body surface area

  BUN  blood urea nitrogen

  BV  bacterial vaginosis

  BVM  bag valve mask

  C&S  culture and sensitivity

  C-peptide  insulin chain C-peptide

  C-section  cesarean section

  C-spine  cervical spine

  CABG  coronary artery bypass graft

  CACl2  calcium chloride

  CAD  coronary artery disease

  cap  capsule

  c-ANCA  central antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody

  CBC  complete blood cell count

  cc  cubic centimeter (for solids and gases but ml for liquids)

  CD41  helper T cell (cluster of differentiation no. 41)

  CDC  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga.

  CEA  carcinoembryonic antigen

  CFU  colony-forming unit

  CHF  congestive heart failure

  Chol  cholesterol

  CIN  cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (1 to 3: mild to severe)

  CK  creatine kinase

  CLL  chronic lymphocytic leukemia

  cm  centimeter

  CMV  cytomegalovirus

  CNS  central nervous system

  CO2  carbon dioxide

  COPD  chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  CPAP  continuous positive airway pressure

  CPD  cephalopelvic disproportion

  CPK  creatine phosphokinase

  CPPD  calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (crystals) (pseudogout)

  CPR  cardiopulmonary resuscitation

  Cr  creatinine

  CRF  chronic renal failure

  CRP  C-reactive protein

  CSF  cerebrospinal fluid

  CST  contraction stress fluid

  CT  computerized tomography

  CVA  cerebrovascular accident

  CVAT  costovertebral-angle tenderness

  CVD  cerebrovascular disease

  CVN  central venous nutrition

  CVP  central venous pressure

  CVS  cardiovascular system

  c/w  consistent with

  CXR  chest x-ray film or radiograph

  D&C  dilatation and curettage

  DBP  diastolic blood pressure

  DDAVP  1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin

  DDC, ddC  dideoxycytidine, zalcitabine, Hivid

  DDI, ddI  dideoxyinosine, didanosine

  D5W  5% dextrose in water

  D4T  stavudine

  DHE  dihydroergotamine

  DHT  dihydrotestosterone

  DIC  disseminated intravascular coagulation

  DIP  distal interphalangeal joint

  DKA  diabetic ketoacidosis

  dl  deciliter

  DM  diabetes mellitus

  DPL  diagnostic peritoneal lavage

  DPT  diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (vaccine)

  DS  double strength

  DSM  Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (of Mental Disorders)

  dsDNA  double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid

  DTR  deep tendon reflexes

  DTs  delirium tremens

  DVT  deep venous thrombosis

  D/W  dextrose in water

  EBV  Epstein-Barr virus

  ECF  extracellular fluid

  ECG  electrocardiogram

  ECMO  extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

  ED  emergency department

  EDC  estimated date of confinement

  EEG  electroencephalogram

  EES  erythromycin ethylsuccinate

  EGD  esophagogastroduodenoscopy

  EIA  enzyme immunoassay

  ELISA  enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

  EM  erythema multiforme

  EMG  electromyogram

  ENG  electronystagmography

  ENT  ear, nose, throat

  ER  emergency room

  ERCP  endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

  ESR  erythrocyte sedimentation rate

  ET  endotracheal tube

  FB  foreign body

  FDA  U.S. Food and Drug Administration

  Fe  iron

  FENa  fractional excretion of sodium

  FEF  forced expiratory flow

  FEV1  forced expiratory volume at 1 second

  FFP  fresh frozen plasma

  FH  family history

  FHR  fetal heart rate

  FSH  follicle-stimulating hormone

  FTA  fluorescent treponemal antibody

  FTA-ABS  fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (test)

  5-FU  5-fluorouracil

  F/U  follow-up (study, exam, test, care)

  FUO  fever of unknown origin

  G  gauge

  G6PD  glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

  GBS  group B Streptococcus bacteria, or group B streptococcal infection

  GC  gonococcus

  GCS  Glasgow Coma Scale

  GCT  glucose challenge test

  GDM  gestational diabetes mellitus

  GE  gastroesophageal

  GFR  glomerular filtration rate

  GI  gastrointestinal

  g  gram

  GM-CSF  granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

  GN  glomerulonephritis

  GnRH  gonadotropin-releasing hormone

  GODM  gestational onset diabetes mellitus

  gtt  drops (guttae)

  GTT  glucose tolerance test

  GU  genitourinary

  GXT  graded exercise stress test

  GYN  gynecologic

  h, hr  hour

  H&P  history and physical examination

  HA  headache

  Hb  hemoglobin

  HC/AC  head circumference-to-abdominal circumference (ratio)

  HCG  human chorionic gonadotropin

  HCT  hematocrit

  HCTZ  hydrochlorothiazide

  HDL  high-density lipoprotein

  HELLP  hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count (syndrome)

  HepBsAg  hepatitis B surface antigen

  HGE  human granulocytic ehrlichiosis

  HIV  human immunodeficiency virus

  HME  human monocytic erlichiosis

  HMG  human menopausal gonadotropin

  h/o  history of

  HPF  high-power field

  HRT  hormone replacement therapy

  HS  at bedtime (hora somni)

  HSV  herpes simplex virus

  ht, Ht  height

  HTN  hypertension

  HUS  hemolytic uremic syndrome

  HZV  herpes zoster virus

  I&D  incision and drainage

  I&O  intake and output

  ICF  intracellular fluid

  ICP  intracranial pressure

  ICU  intensive care unit

  ID  infectious disease

  IDDM  insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

  IFA  immunofluorescence assay

  IgG  immunoglobulin G

  IHSS  idiopathic hypertrophic aortic stenosis

  IM  intramuscular

  IMV  intermittent mandatory ventilation

  IN  intranasally

  INH  isoniazid, isonicotinc acid hydrazide

  INR  International Normalized Ratio

  IO  intraosseous

  IPPV  intermittent positive-pressure ventilation

  ISA  intrinsic stimulating activity

  ITP  idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura

  IU  International Unit

  IUD  intrauterine device

  IUFD  intrauterine fetal demise

  IUGR  intrauterine growth retardation

  IUP  intrauterine pregnancy

  IV  intravenous

  IVDA  intravenous drug abuser

  IVP  intravenous pyelogram

  JRA  juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

  JVD  jugular venous distension

  kg  kilogram

  K, K1  potassium

  KOH  potassium hydroxide

  KS  Kaposi’s sarcoma

  LA  lupus anticoagulant

  LAT  preparation of lidocaine, epinephrine (adrenaline), tetracaine

  LBBB  left bundle branch block

  LDH  lactate dehydrogenase

  LDL  low-density lipoprotein

  LE  lupus erythematosus

  LES  lower esophageal sphincter

  LFT  liver function tests

  LGI  lower GI (gastrointestinal)

  LH  luteinizing hormone

  LLQ  left lower quadrant

  LMP  last menstrual period

  LMW  low molecular weight

  LOC  loss of consciousness

  LP  lumbar puncture

  LR  lactated Ringer’s solution

  L/S  lecithin-to-sphingomyelin (ratio)

  LSIL  low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

  LUQ  left upper quadrant

  LV  left ventricular

  MAI/MAC  Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/M. avium complex

  MAO  monoamine oxidase

  MAOI  monoamine oxidase inhibitors

  MAST  military antishock trousers

  MCP  metacarpophalangeal joint

  MCV  mean corpuscular volume

  MDD  major depressive disorder

  MDI  metered dose inhaler

  MEE  middle ear effusion

  mEq  milliequivalent

  mg  milligram

  mg  microgram

  MI  myocardial infarction

  min  minute

  mm Hg  millimeters of mercury

  mmol  millimole

  MMPI  Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

  MMR  measles-mumps-rubella (vaccine)

  MMSE  Mini-Mental State examination

  mOsm  milliosmole

  MR  measles and rubella (vaccine)

  MRI  magnetic resonance imaging

  MS  multiple sclerosis

  MTP  metatarsophalangeal joint

  MVP  mitral valve prolaspe

  N&V  nausea and vomiting

  NCV  nerve conduction velocity

  NG  nasogastric

  NHL  non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

  NIDDM  non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

  NPH  neutral protamine Hagedorn

  NPO  nothing by mouth (nulla per os)

  NS  normal saline solution

  NSAID  nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

  NST  nonstress test

  NSVD  normal spontaneous vaginal delivery

  NTD  neural tube defect

  NTG  nitroglycerin

  O&P  ova and parasites

  OA  osteoarthritis

  OCD  obsessive-compulsive disorder

  OCP  oral contraceptive pill

  17-OHS  17-hydroxysteroid (that is, 17-hydroxycorticosteroid)

  OM  otitis media

  OPV  oral poliovirus

  ORS  WHO oral rehydration solution

  osm, Osm  osmole; osmolality

  OTC  over the counter

  PA  posteroanterior

  PAC  premature atrial contraction

  PALS  Pediatric Advanced Life Support

  Pap  Papanicolaou test or smear

  PAS  para-aminosalicylic acid

  PCA  patient-controlled analgesia

  PCN  penicillin

  PCOD  polycystic ovarian disease

  PCP  Pneumocystis pneumonia

  PCR  polymerase chain reaction

  PCWP  pulmonary capillary wedge pressure

  PD  Parkinson’s disease

  PDA  patent ductus arteriosus

  PE  physical examination

  PE  pulmonary embolism

  PEEP  positive end-expiratory pressure

  PEFR  peak expiratory flow rate

  PET  positron emission tomography

  PFTs  pulmonary function tests

  PG  phosphatidylglycerol

  pH  hydrogen-ion concentration; pH 7, normal; less is acidic; more is alkaline (or basic)

  PID  pelvic inflammatory disease

  PIH  pregnancy-induced hypertension

  PIP  proximal interphalangeal joint

  plt  platelet

  PMNs  polymorphonuclear lymphocytes

  PMR  polymyalgia rheumatica

  PMS  premenstrual syndrome

  PO  per mouth (per os)

  POD  postoperative day

  PPD  protein purified derivative

  PR  per rectum

  PRN  as needed (pro re nata)

  PROM  premature rupture of membranes

  PSA  prostate specific antigen

  PSVT  paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia

  PT  prothrombin time

  PTCA  percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

  PTL  premature labor

  PTSD  post-traumatic stress disorder

  PTT  partial thromboplastin time

  PTU  propylthiouracil

  PUD  peptic ulcer disease

  PVC  premature ventricular contraction

  QD  every day (quaque die)

  QHS  properly "every hour of sleep," but usually "at every bedtime" (quaque hora somni)

  QID  four times per day (quater in die)

  QOD  every other day (tertio quoque die)

  RA  rheumatoid arthritis

  RBC  red blood cell

  RCA  right coronary artery

  REM  rapid eye movement

  RF  renal failure

  RFI  renal failure index

  RIA  radioimmunoassay

  RIND  reversible ischemic neurologic deficit

  RLQ  right lower quadrant

  RMSF  Rocky Mountain spotted fever

  R/O, r/o  rule out

  ROM  rupture of membranes; range-of-motion (exercise)

  RPR  rapid plasma reagin

  RSI  rapid-sequence intubation

  RSV  respiratory syncytial virus

  rt-PA  tissue-type plasminogen activator (recombinant) (Alteplase, Recombinant)

  RUQ  right upper quadrant

  RVMI  right ventricular myocardial infarction

  SAARD  slow-acting antirheumatic drug(s)

  SAH  subarachnoid hemorrhage

  SBP  systolic blood pressure

  SCIWORA  spinal cord injury without radiologic abnormality

  SGA  small for gestational age



  SIL  squamous intraepithelial lesions

  SK  streptokinase

  SL  sublingual

  SLE  systemic lupus erythematosus

  SLR  straight-leg raising (test)

  SOB  shortness of breath

  sp. gr.  specific gravity

  SPECT  single-photon emission computerized tomography

  SQ  subcutaneous

  SR  slow release

  SROM  spontaneous rupture of membrane

  SS  single strength

  SSKI  saturated solution of potassium iodide

  SSRI  selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

  STD  sexually transmitted disease

  T3  triiodothyronine

  T4  thyroxine

  TAC  preparation of tetracycline, epinephrine (adrenaline), cocaine

  Tb, TB  tuberculosis

  TBG  thyroxine-binding globulin

  TBSA  total body surface area

  TBW  total body water

  3TC  lamivudine

  TCA  tricyclic antidepressant

  TEDS  thromboembolic disease support (stockings, hose)

  TEE  transesophageal echocardiography

  TENS  transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation

  TFT  thyroid function test

  TG  triglycerides

  TIA  transient ischemic attack

  TIBC  total iron-binding capacity

  TM  tympanic membrane

  TMJ  temporomandibular joint

  TMP/SMX  trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (complex)

  TORCHS  toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, syphilis (infection)

  TPA  tissue plasminogen activator

  TPN  total parenteral nutrition

  TRH  thyrotropin-releasing hormone

  TSH  thyroid-stimulating hormone

  TTP  thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

  TURP  transurethral prostatectomy

  TWAR  Taiwan acute respiratory disease

  U  unit

  UA  urinalysis

  UC  ulcerative colitis

  UGI  upper gastrointestinal (tract)

  U/P  urine-to-plasma ratio

  URI  upper respiratory infection

  U/S  ultrasound, ultrasonogram, ultrasonography

  UTI  urinary tract infection

  UV  ultraviolet (radiation); B refers to the shorter-wave, more damaging range

  V Fib  ventricular fibrillation

  V Tach  ventricular tachycardia

  VBAC  vaginal birth after cesarean section

  VCUG  voiding cystourethrogram

  VDRL  Venereal Disease Research Laboratories (test)

  V/Q  ventilation-perfusion ratio

  VSD  ventricular septal defect

  Vt  tidal volume

  VT  vestibular training

  vWF  von Willebrand’s factor

  WBC  white blood cell (count)

  wt, Wt  weight

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