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Back To Vidyya 10th Special Report To The US Congress:

Alcohol And Health


Table of Contents

 
Foreword
Preface
Introduction
Acknowledgments
ix
xi
xiii
xvii
Chapter 1: Drinking Over the Life Span: Issues of
Biology, Behavior, and Risk

Introduction 1
Measuring the Health Risks and Benefits of Alcohol 3
  Risks and Benefits of Alcohol Consumption: Physical Health
Psychosocial Consequences and Cognitive Effects
Effects on Society of Alcohol Use: Injuries and Violence
Assessing Risks and Benefits: Mortality, Morbidity, and Disability
In Closing
References
4
11
12
13
17
17
Alcohol Involvement Over the Life Course 28
  Understanding the Age Progression of Alcohol Involvement in
Childhood and Later Life
Developmental Patterns
Social Contexts and Drinking Behavior
Changes in Patterns of Drinking Behavior as a Function of
Social Change
Development and Drinking Behavior: Dynamic Models of
Stability and Change
In Closing
References

30
30
37

40

44
45
45
Alcohol and Violence 54
  Individual-Level Studies: Drinking by Offenders
Individual-Level Studies: Drinking by Victims
Environmental Influences
Theoretical Developments
In Closing
References
55
58
59
61
63
63
Chapter 2: Alcohol and the Brain: Neuroscience and Neurobehavior
Introduction 67
Setting the Stage: The Structure and Function of Neurons 69
  Structure and Function of Neurons
Communication Within and Between Neurons
Neurotransmitters
In Closing
References
70
73
76
76
77
From Cell Membrane to Nucleus: The Effects of Alcohol on
Brain Neurons
78
  Alcohol's Effect on Synaptic Transmission During Acute Exposure
Alcohol's Effects on Protein Phosphorylation
Long-Term Exposure to Alcohol: Gene Expression, Protein
Phosphorylation, and Protein Localization
In Closing
References
78
79

83
85
85
Acute Actions of Alcohol on the Brain 89
  Measuring Alcohol's Effects
Alcohol and Ion Channels
Alcohol and Neurotransmitter Systems
In Closing
References
89
90
98
100
101
Neurobiological and Neurobehavioral Mechanisms of Chronic Alcohol Drinking 107
  Reinforcement and Reward in Chronic Drinking
Insights Into Features of Alcoholism From Animal Models
Alcoholism and the Neural Structures of Reward
Neurochemical and Molecular Adaptations to Alcohol
Alcoholism: Lasting Changes in the Brain
References
107
108
113
115
119
123
The Neurotoxicity of Alcohol 134
  Neuropathologic Changes
Morphological Changes
Functional Changes
Mechanisms of Action
In Closing
References
134
135
138
138
141
142
Genetic Studies of Alcohol's Actions on the Brain 147
  Development of Animal Models
Investigation of Candidate Genes
Immediate Early Genes
References
147
149
153
155
Chapter 3: Genetic and Psychosocial Influences
Introduction 159
Animal Genetic Studies on Alcoholism 160
  Quantitative Trait Loci
Creating Rodent Models
Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping
In Closing
References
160
161
162
165
166
Recent Progress in the Genetics of Alcoholism 169
  Findings From Twin/Family Studies
Findings From Genetic Linkage Studies
Findings From Genetic Association Studies
In Closing
References
169
173
175
177
177
Psychosocial Factors in Alcohol Use and Alcoholism 181
  Family History of Alcoholism
Developmental Issues
Motivation To Drink
The Role of Cognition: Beliefs About Alcohol
In Closing
References
181
186
187
189
190
191
Chapter 4: Medical Consequences
Introduction 197
Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury 198
  Alcoholic Liver Disease
Preventing Liver Injury
Nutritional Factors
Other Liver Diseases
References
198
202
202
204
207
Alcohol and the Immune System 214
  Alcohol and Diseases Related to the Immune System
Diseases Related to Immunodeficiency
Diseases Related to Autoimmunity
The Immune System
Changes in the Immune System of Alcoholics
Experimental Models
Current Directions
Therapeutic Measures
References
214
214
215
216
217
219
222
225
226
Alcohol's Effects on the Cardiovascular System 240
  The Heart
The Vascular System
In Closing
References
240
244
248
248
Alcohol and Women: An Overview 253
  Health Consequences of Alcohol for Women
Physiologic Mechanisms
Liver Injury
In Closing
References
253
254
255
256
256
Alcohol and the Skeletal System 258
  Research Challenges
Alcohol-Induced Fractures
Alcohol-Induced Osteopenia
Bone Histomorphometry
Potential Mechanisms of Alcohol-Induced Bone Disease
In Closing
References
258
259
260
261
262
266
266
Alcohol and Breast Cancer 273
  Age, Genetics, and Other Risk Factors
Menopausal Status and Hormones
Mechanisms of Alcohol-Related Breast Cancer
In Closing
References
274
274
275
277
278
Chapter 5: Prenatal Exposure to Alcohol
Introduction 283
Prenatal Alcohol Exposure: Effects on Brain Structure
and Function
285
  Diagnosing the Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure
Neuroimaging: Precise Pictures of Structural Damage
to the Brain
Physical Measures of Altered Brain Function: Cry Patterns
and EEG's
Effects on Cognitive and Motor Functions
Effects on Mental Health and Psychosocial Behavior
In Closing
References
285

287

289
290
294
295
296
Underlying Mechanisms of Alcohol-Induced Damage to the
Fetus
300
  Challenges to FAS Research: Multiple Mechanisms, Sites of
Action, and Risk Factors
Candidate Mechanisms for Central Nervous System Damage
Candidate Mechanisms for Craniofacial Defects
In Closing
References

301
302
309
310
310
Issues in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Prevention 323
  Reviews of Prevention Programs and Research
Methodological and Evaluation Issues
Reaching to All, Regardless of Risk: Universal Prevention Approaches
Targeting Those at Increased Risk: Selective Prevention
Approaches
Helping Those at Highest Risk: Indicated Prevention
Approaches
International Considerations
In Closing
References
323
325

326

327

329
331
332
332
Chapter 6: Economic and Health Services Perspectives
Introduction 339
Effects of Changes in Alcohol Prices and Taxes 341
  Public Policies and Alcohol Prices
Alcohol Prices, Taxes, and Consumption
Alcohol Taxes and Traffic Fatalities
Alcohol Demand and Marijuana Demand
Benefits and Costs of Taxation
In Closing
References
341
342
346
348
349
351
352
Cost Research on Alcoholism Treatment 355
  Past Research
Recent Studies
In Closing
References
355
356
361
361
The Economic Costs of Alcohol Abuse 364
  Distribution of the Burden of Costs
Components of the Costs of Alcohol Abuse
Limitations and Caveats
References
365
366
369
370
Chapter 7: Prevention Research
Introduction 373
Reducing Alcohol-Impaired Driving 375
  Recent Trends in Alcohol-Related Traffic Fatalities
Legislative Efforts To Reduce Alcohol-Impaired Driving
Enforcement of Impaired-Driving Laws
Comprehensive Community Programs
Alcohol Control Policies
Individual Actions
Safety Belt Laws
In Closing
References
377
378
386
386
387
389
390
391
391
Community-Based Prevention Approaches 397
  Community Prevention for Heart Disease and Health Promotion: A
Precedent
Methodological Concerns
Recent Research Results
Commentary and Future Research Needs
In Closing
References

397
398
399
405
408
408
Alcohol Advertising: What Are the Effects? 412
  Background: The Frequency and Content of Advertising Messages
Does Alcohol Advertising Affect Drinking or Drinking Problems?
In Closing
References
413
414
422
423
Chapter 8: Treatment Research
Introduction 427
Screening and Brief Intervention for Alcohol Problems 429
  Screening for Alcohol Problems
Brief Intervention
Areas for Future Research
In Closing
References
429
432
437
439
439
Treatment of Alcohol Dependence With Psychological Approaches 444
  Client-Treatment Matching
Professional Treatment Modeled on the 12 Steps of Alcoholics
Anonymous
Supportive Ancillary Services
Intensity of Services
In Closing
References
444

445
446
448
448
449
Treatment of Alcohol Dependence With Medications 451
  Medications for Alcohol Dependence
Medications for Patients With Both Alcoholism and Depression
In Closing
References
452
457
458
458

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Editor: Susan K. Boyer, RN
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